Neurosurgery is a clinical discipline that studies diseases of the nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, as well as the peripheral nervous system. This system includes nerve pathways throughout the body, the treatment of which is carried out mainly by surgical methods.
Neurosurgical intervention on the brain
The most severe operations are associated with the brain. The head, the skull cannot be widely opened and properly examined with doctors’ hands, as surgeons do during abdominal or thoracic cavity operations.
The brain controls the whole body. Having diagnosed certain violations of some functions of various organs and body parts, neuropathologists and neurosurgeons can quite accurately localize the place of brain damage in order to open exactly the right area to conduct an operation.
In addition, the system for studying the electrical activity of the brain (electroencephalography), and then computed tomography, and nuclear magnetic resonance provide the brain image in layers, which makes it possible to further clarify the localization and understand the genesis and cause of the disease.
The first neurological interventions explained by My Canadian Pharmacy
According to My Canadian Pharmacy, neurological surgery was originally associated with trauma, so the first neurosurgical interventions were associated with injuries obtained in fights, in battle, in hunting. The assistance with such injuries was elementary and obviously insufficient to isolate it into a separate branch of surgery for a long time.
But later, elementary operations for fractures of the skull bones, with the development of general surgery, became more complicated and were not limited only to the removal of bone fragments. In such cases, fragments either have been removed, neurosurgeons replace the bone fragment and superficial tissues, or compression is eliminated. So that, the decompression is performed, and only the skin over the wound is sewed up. But it is possible to restore the defect in the skull with a plastic prosthesis after removing compression.
Brain tumors, sometimes of very small sizes, can lead to serious disturbances in the body. The ratio between the size of the brain controlling the whole body and the size of the body itself gives an idea of the great tightness in which there are different control centers. Therefore, a small tumor can disrupt many of the functions of various organs at once.
Acute diagnosis and early intervention
In neurosurgery, accurate local diagnosis is very important as well as an early intervention. Due to the brain tightness, symptoms can appear relatively early, which helps to undertake timely surgery in the case of the correct assessment. But it also depends on the nature of the tumor itself.
Local purulent processes in the brain (abscesses), cerebral hemorrhages (strokes) with favorable circumstances can also be operated on. During such interventions, purulence is removed, blood that has been poured out and, mainly, a terrible compression that destroys the brain is eliminated.
The spinal cord, located in the spinal canal also suffers from changes in the intervertebral discs – cartilaginous tissues between the vertebrae. In some processes, areas of these tissues extend beyond the vertebrae and put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Conservative methods have limited capabilities, since organic disc changes remain and, eventually, relapses take place. Severe pain and immobility make you address neurosurgeons – this organic defect can be eliminated by surgical methods.
Sympathetic Nervous System
There is also the sympathetic nervous system in the form of pipe along the spine, sympathetic nodes that control a number of functions of certain organs, such as secretion of glands, contraction and movement of blood vessels, intestines and others. Thus, the vagus nerve of this sympathetic and parasympathetic system regulates the secretion of glands in the stomach, which are related to the development of a peptic ulcer. One of the methods of operations for ulcers is the intersection of the nerve branches. Some vascular diseases (for example, spasms) are also sometimes treatable when sympathetic nodes are removed.
Since the nervous system essentially controls the vital activity of the organism, the development of science, the latest knowledge and skills expand the field of neurosurgeons’ activity. Neurosurgery will increasingly include areas previously treated by specialists from other branches of medicine.